Properties of Radiotracers Used for PET MBF Quantification

Isotope production methodGeneratorCyclotronCyclotronCyclotron
Isotope half-life (min)1.27102.0110
Positron range (mm) RMS2.60.571.00.23
Image resolution (mm) FWHM8565
Effective dose (mSv/GBq)12120
Peak stress/rest* extraction (%)35/7095/10010095/100
Peak stress/rest* retention (%)25/7050/90055/90
Spillover from adjacent organsStomach wallLiver and lungLiverEarly liver
Regulatory statusFDA-approved; 2 suppliersFDA-approved; ANDA required for onsite productionNot FDA-approvedPhase 3 trials partially completed
Typical rest dose for 3D/2D (mCi)30/4510/1520/302/3
Typical stress dose for 3D/2D (mCi)30/4510/1520/306/7
Protocol featuresRapid protocolPermits exercise; delay of 4–5 half-lives between rest and stress unless different doses usedRapid protocol; no tracer retention for routine MPIPermits exercise; different doses for rest and stress required
  • * Peak stress = 3–4 mL/min/g, rest = 0.75–1.0 mL/min/g.

  • 1 mCi = 37 MBq.

  • Exercise protocols do not allow quantification of MBF.

  • RMS = root mean square (standard) deviation; FWHM = full width at half maximum achievable using PET scanner with 5-mm spatial resolution; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; ANDA = abbreviated new drug application.