TABLE 4

Recent Phantom Experiments Evaluating Accuracy of Quantification of 177Lu Activity

ReferencePhotopeak energyPhantomReconstructionSegmentationAccuracy
Beauregard et al. (46)208 keVThree 175-mL cylinders in cold waterOSEM, CDR, AC, DEW scatter correction40% fixed threshold<15% for cylinders, <9.5% for total phantom activity
Shcherbinin et al. (30)113 keV70 mL cylinder placed in air and cold waterOSEM, CDR, AC, APDI scatter correctionCT volume augmented by 4 voxels in each direction1%–2% for cylinder VOIs, <11%–18% for total phantom activity
Uribe et al. (56)208 keV0.5- to 113-mL spheres in air, cold and hot waterOSEM, CDR, AC, TEW scatter correctionFixed threshold 0.1% for air, 1% for water, iterative adaptive dual thresholding (66) for hot water<3% for spheres, >1 mL in air, <13% for spheres, >1 mL in water, <3% for 113-mL sphere in hot water
8.5- to 34-mL bottles in air and cold waterOSEM, CDR, AC, TEW scatter correction<5% in air, <13% in water
Four 34-mL cylinders in thorax phantom (nonuniform cold environment)OSEM, CDR, AC, APDI scatter correction<5%
34- to 148-mL cylinders in air and between cold water bagsOSEM, CDR, AC, TEW scatter correction<7%
de Nijs et al. (45)208 keV27-mL spheric insert in National Electrical Manufacturers Association phantomOSEM, CDR, AC
TEW (15%)11%
TEW (20%)12%
ESSE7%