Clinically Used Radiolabeled Catecholamine Analogs

TracerUptake-1 affinityVesicular storageMAO/COMT-sensitiveGeneral characteristics
123I-MIBG+++Catecholamine analog; distributes in cytoplasm and vesicles after neuronal uptake
11C-HED++OCatecholamine analog; undergoes constant uptake and reuptake by NET
11C-EPI++++Physiologic neurotransmitter; requires vesicular storage for protection from degradation
11C-PHEN+++Catecholamine analog; washout reflects vesicular leakage and MAO activity
18F-FDA++++Precursor of physiologic neurotransmitter; requires enzymatic conversion and vesicular storage for protection from degradation
18F-LMI1195???Guanidine analog in phase 1 and 2 clinical studies; published information is limited
  • COMT = catecholamine-O-methyl-transferase; HED = hydroxyephedrine; NET = norepinephrine transporter; EPI = epinephrine; PHEN = phenylephrine; FDA = fluorodopamine.