TABLE 2

Representative Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes

OncogenesTumor suppressor genes
ClassExamplesIncidenceClassExamplesIncidence
Growth factorsSis/PDGFSimian sarcomaPhosphatasePTENBreast, colon
Receptor tyrosine kinasesEGFR, HER2Lung cancer, GBM, breast cancerCell–cell and extracellular matrixAPC, GP43/MerlinColon cancer, neurofibromatosis type 2
Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinasesSrc, Syk, AblColon cancer, head and neck cancer, CMLDNA repair and cell cycle checkpointsBRCA1/2, pRb, p53Breast and ovarian cancer, retinoblastoma; 70% of all
Cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinasesBRafMelanoma, colonG-protein (ras) inhibitorNeurofibromin 1Neurofibromatosis type 1
21-kDa GTPasesH-Ras, N-Ras, K-RasPancreatic cancer; 20% of allUbiquitin ligaseVHLRenal cell cancer
Transcription factorsMycBurkitt's lymphoma; 20% of allDehydrogenasesSuccinate dehydrogenases B and DPheochromocytoma
  • PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptor; GBM = glioblastoma multiforme; APC = adenomatosis polyposis coli; CML = chronic myelogenous leukemia; VHL = von Hippel–Lindau disease.